Ek:Japonca 1000 temel sözcük

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AdlarDüzenle

İnsanlarDüzenle

MesleklerDüzenle

VücutDüzenle

AileDüzenle

YaşamDüzenle

HayvanlarDüzenle

BitkilerDüzenle

EkinlerDüzenle

YiyecekDüzenle

たべもの、食べ物 - yiyecek (tabemono) ちょうしょく、朝食 - kahvaltı (chōshoku, asagohan) ひるごはん、昼御飯 - öğle yemeği (hirugohan) ばんごはん、晩御飯 - akşam yemeği (bangohan) ごはん、御飯 - pilav ya da öğün (gohan) みそ、味噌 - miso (miso) りょうり、料理 - pişirmek (ryōri) サラダ - salata (sarada) デザート - tatlı (dezāto) パン - ekmek (pan) サンドイッチ - sandviç (sandoitchi) おやつ、間食 - atıştırmalık (oyatsu, kanshoku) アイスクリーム - dondurma (aisukurīmu)

İçecekDüzenle

のみもの、飲み物 - içecek/meşrubat (nomimono) ちゃ、茶 - çay ("cha") おちゃ、お茶 - yeşil çay (ocha) コーヒー、珈琲 - kahve (kōhī) ぎゅうにゅう、牛乳 - süt (gyūnyū) みず、水 - su ("mizu") ビール - bira ("bīru") ワイン - şarap ("wain")

BaharatDüzenle

さとう、砂糖 - şeker (satō) しお、塩 - tuz (shio) しょうゆ、醤油 - soya sosu (shōyu)

ZamanDüzenle

じかん、時間 – zaman (jikan) とき、じ、時 – saat (toki, ji) こよみ、カレンダー、暦 – takvim (koyomi, karendā) ふん、分 – dakika (fun) びょう、秒 – saniye (byō) ひ、にち、日 – gün (hi, nichi) つき、がつ、月 – ay (tsuki, gatsu) (# -gatsu / (Ocak, birinci ay): Ichi-,Ni-,San-,Shi-,Go-,Roku-,Shichi-,Hachi-,Ku-,Jyu-,JyuIchi-,JyuNi- (Aralık, on ikinci ay) とし、ねん、年 – yıl (toshi, nen) (Geçen yıl: kyonen, bu yıl: kotoshi, gelecek yıl: rainen), きのう、さくじつ、昨日 – geçen yıl (kinō, sakujitsu) きょう、今日 – bugün (kyō) あした、あす、みょうにち、明日 – yarın (ashita, asu, myōnichi) あさ、朝 – sabah (asa) (Dün sabah: kinou no asa; bu sabah: kesa, yarın sabah: ashita no asa) ひる、昼 – ikindi (hiru) ゆうがた、夕方 – akşam (yūgata) ばん、晩 – akşam (ban) よる、夜 – akşam, gece (yoru) ようび、曜日 – ~gün -haftanın günleri- (yōbi) しゅう、週 – hafta (shū) (Geçen hafta: senshū, bu hafta: konshū, gelecek hafta: raishū) いっしゅうかん、一週間 – bir hafta (isshūkan)

Haftanın GünleriDüzenle

にちようび、日曜日 – Pazar (nichi-yōbi) げつようび、月曜日 – Pazartesi (getsu-yōbi) かようび、火曜日 – Salı (ka-yōbi) すいようび、水曜日 – Çarşamba (sui-yōbi) もくようび、木曜日 – Perşembe (moku-yōbi) きんようび、金曜日 – Cuma (kin-yōbi) どようび、土曜日 – Cumartesi (do-yōbi)

HavaDüzenle

たいよう、太陽 – güneş (taiyō) つき、月 – ay (tsuki) ほし、星 – yıldız (hoshi) てんき、天気 – hava (tenki) はれ、晴れ – temiz hava (hare) あめ、雨 – yağmur (ame) くもり、曇り – bulutlu hava (kumori) ゆき、雪 – kar (yuki) かぜ、風 – rüzgar (kaze) かみなり、雷 – yıldırım, şimşek (kaminari) たいふう、台風 – tayfun (taifū) あらし、嵐 – fırtına (arashi) そら、空 – gökyüzü (sora)

Yönler ve PozisyonlarDüzenle

きた、北 – kuzey (kita) ひがし、東 – doğu (higashi) みなみ、南 – güney (minami) にし、西 – batı (nishi) ここ – burası -konuşana yakın- (koko) そこ – şurası -konuşana uzak- (soko) あそこ – orası -hem konuşana hem dinleyene uzak- (asoko) みぎ、右 – sağ (migi) ひだり、左 – sol (hidari) うえ、上 – yukarı, yukarısı (ue) した、下 – aşağı, aşağısı (shita) まえ、前 – ön, önünde (mae) うしろ、後 – arka, arkası (ushiro) むこう、向こう – diğer taraf, karşı taraf (mukō) ななめ、斜め – çapraz(ı) (naname) てまえ、手前 – daha yakın, daha önde (temae) とおい、遠い – uzak (tooi) ちかい、近い – yakın (chikai)

MaddelerDüzenle

みず、水 – su (mizu) ゆ、湯 – sıcak su (yu) こおり、氷 – buz (kōri) ゆげ、湯気 – buhar (yuge) ひ、火 – ateş (hi) ガス – gaz (gasu) くうき、空気 – hava, atmosfer (kūki) つち、土 – yer, toprak (tsuchi) きんぞく、金属 – metal, metalik (kinzoku) どろ、泥 – çamur, kil (doro) けむり、煙 – sigara, tütün, afyon (kemuri) てつ、鉄 – demir [Fe] (tetsu) どう、銅 – bakır [Cu] (dō) きん、金 – altın [Au]; money (kin) ぎん、銀 – gümüş [Ag]; wealth (gin) なまり、鉛 – kurşun [Pb] (namari) しお、塩 – tuz [NaCl] (shio)

Ağırlıklar ve ÖlçülerDüzenle

メートル – metre (mētoru) リットル – litre (rittoru) グラム – gram (guramu) キロ – kilogram (kiro) ミリ – mili (miri) センチメートル, センチ – santimetre (senchi) インチ – inç (inchi)

ToplumDüzenle

しゃかい、社会 – toplum (shakai) けいざい、経済 – ekonomi (keizai) かいしゃ、会社 – şirket (kaisha) かいぎ、会議 – toplantı (kaigi) がっこう、学校 – okul (gakkō) やくしょ、役所 – local government office (yakusho) みせ、店 – mağaza (mise) ホテル – otel (hoteru) こうじょう、工場 – fabrika (kōjō) かね、金 – para (kane, genellikle o-kane) さつ、札 – banknot (satsu) こぜに、小銭 – bozuk para (kozeni) つりせん、釣り銭、おつり、お釣り – para üstü (tsurisen, o-tsuri) じどうはんばいき、自動販売機 – otomat makinesi, slot makinesi (jidōhanbaiki) きっぷ、切符 – bilet (toplu taşımada) (kippu) きって、切手 – posta pulu (kitte)

İnsan Yapımı NesnelerDüzenle

EvDüzenle

つくえ、机 – desk (tsukue) いす、椅子 – chair, position (isu) たたみ、畳 – a tatami mat (tatami) と、戸 – door, family (to) とびら、扉 – door panel (tobira) ドア – door (doa) まど、窓 – window (mado) ふとん、布団 – futon (futon) げんかん、玄関 – entrance (genkan) いえ、家 – house, home (ie) エレベーター – elevator (erebētā) エスカレーター – escalator (esukarētā) でんき、電気 – electricity (denki)

AletlerDüzenle

くぎ、釘 – nail, spike (kugi) ひも、紐 – string, cord (himo) なわ、縄 – rope, string (nawa) ふくろ、袋 – pocket, bag (fukuro) かばん、鞄 – leather bag (kaban) かさ、傘 – umbrella, parasol (kasa) かぎ、鍵 – door bolt, key (kagi) ちょうこく、彫刻 – sculpture, engraving (chōkoku)

KırtasiyeDüzenle

ぶんぼうぐ、文房具 – quill(bunbōgu) インク – ink (inku) ペン – pen (pen) ボールペン – ball-point pen (bōrupen) まんねんひつ、万年筆 – fountain pen (mannenhitsu) えんぴつ、鉛筆 – pencil (enpitsu) ふで、筆 – brush for writing or painting (fude) チョーク – chalk (chōku) けしゴム、消しゴム – eraser (keshigomu) えんぴつけずり、鉛筆削り – pencil sharpener (enpitsu-kezuri) じょうぎ、定規 – ruler (jōgi) ノート – notebook (nōto) にっき、日記 – diary (nikki) カバー – book cover (kabā) ふうとう、封筒 – envelope (fūtō) はさみ、鋏 – scissors (hasami) ホッチキス – stapler (hotchikisu)

GiysilerDüzenle

ふく、服 – clothes (fuku) ようふく、洋服 – western clothing (yōfuku) きもの、着物 – kimono (kimono) わふく、和服 – Japanese clothing (wafuku) そで、袖 – sleeve (sode) えり、襟 – lapel, collar (eri) ボタン – button (botan) チャック、ファスナー、ジッパー – zipper, zipper fastener (chakku, fasunā, jippā) ベルト – belt (beruto) くつ、靴 – shoe (kutsu) くつした、靴下 – sock (kutsushita) めがね、眼鏡 – glasses (megane)

UlaşımDüzenle

てつどう、鉄道 – railway (tetsudō) えき、駅 – station (eki) ひこうき、飛行機 – airplane (hikōki) くうこう、空港 (ひこうじょう、飛行場) – airport (kūkō, hikōjō) みち、道 – street, way, road (michi) どうろ、道路 – road (dōro) バスてい、バス停 – bus-stop (basutei) とおり、通り – avenue (tōri) でんしゃ、電車 – train (densha) くるま、車 (じどうしゃ、自動車) – car (kuruma, jidōsha)

DilDüzenle

もじ、文字 – letter, character, script (moji) じ、字 – a letter, character (ji) かんじ、漢字 – Chinese character (kanji) ひらがな、平仮名 – hiragana syllabary characters (hiragana) カタカナ、片仮名 – katakana syllabary characters (katakana) すうじ、数字 – numbers (sūji) アルファベット – alphabet (arufabetto) ローマ字 – Roman characters, Latin script (rōmaji) がいこくご、外国語 – foreign language (gaikokugo) にほんご、日本語 (こくご、国語) – Japanese [language] (nihongo) えいご、英語 – English [language] (eigo) ちゅうごくご、中国語 – Chinese [language] (chūgokugo) どいつご、ドイツ語 – German [language] (doitsugo) すぺいんご、スペイン語 – Spanish [language] (supeingo) ふらんすご、フランス語 – French [language] (furansugo) ちょうせんご、朝鮮語、かんこくご、韓国語 – Korean [language], South Korean [language] (chōsengo, kankokugo)

MedyaDüzenle

ほん、本 – kitap (hon) かみ、紙 – kâğıt (kami) てがみ、手紙 – mektup (tegami) しんぶん、新聞 – gazete (shinbun) じしょ、辞書 – sözlük (jisho) パソコン – bilgisayar (pasokon)

RenklerDüzenle

いろ、色 – color (iro, shikisai) あか、赤 – red (aka) きいろ、黄色 – yellow (kiiro) みどり、緑 – green (midori) あお、青 – blue (ao) むらさき、紫 – purple (murasaki, murasakiiro) しろ、白 – white (shiro) くろ、黒 – black (kuro) ピンク – pink (pinku) ちゃいろ、茶色 – brown (chairo) はいいろ、灰色、ねずみいろ、鼠色 – grey (haiiro, nezumiiro) オレンジ – orange (orenji)

DiğerDüzenle

え、絵 – picture (e) おんがく、音楽 – music (ongaku) りか、理科 – science (rika) さんすう、算数 – arithmetic (sansū) れきし、歴史 – history (rekishi) ちり、地理 – geography (chiri) たいいく、体育 – physical education (taiiku) スポーツ – sport (supōtsu) システム – system (shisutemu) じょうほう、情報 – information, news (jōhō) ひつよう、必要 – necessity (hitsuyō) べんきょう、勉強 – study (benkyō) いらい、依頼 – request (irai)

SayılarDüzenle

れい、ゼロ、零 – zero (rei, zero) いち、一 – one (ichi) に、二 – two (ni) さん、三 – three (san) よん、し、四 – four (yon, shi) ご、五 – five (go) ろく、六 – six (roku) なな、しち、七 – seven (nana, shichi) はち、八 – eight (hachi) きゅう、く、九 – nine (kyū, ku) じゅう、十 – ten (jū) ひゃく、百 – hundred (hyaku) せん、千 – thousand (sen) まん、万 – ten thousand (man) おく、億 – one hundred million (oku) ひとつ、一つ – one, one thing (hitotsu) ふたつ、二つ – two, two things (futatsu) みっつ、三つ – three, three things (mittsu) よっつ、四つ – four, four things (yottsu) いつつ、五つ – five, five things (itsutsu) むっつ、六つ – six, six things (muttsu) ななつ、七つ – seven, seven things (nanatsu) やっつ、八つ – eight, eight things (yattsu) ここのつ、九つ – nine, nine things (kokonotsu) とお、十 – ten, ten things (tō)

Soyut AdlarDüzenle

これ – this, it (kore) それ – that (sore) あれ – that over there (are) どれ – which (dore) こちら、こっち – this direction, thing, person, or place (kochira, kocchi) そちら、そっち – that direction, thing, person, or place (sochira, socchi) あちら、あっち – that direction, thing, person, or place over there (achira, acchi) どちら、どっち – which direction, thing, person, or place (dochira, docchi) ひみつ、秘密 – secret (himitsu) じどう、自動 – automatic (jidō) ないよう、内容 – content (naiyō) はば、幅 – width, breadth, free room, difference (between two substances) (haba) せいしき、正式 – formality (seishiki) けっこん、結婚 – marriage (kekkon) げんざい、現在 – now (genzai) いま、今 – now (ima) かこ、過去 – past (kako) みらい、未来 – future (mirai)

Ön adlarDüzenle

FormlarDüzenle

いい、よい、良い – good (ii, yoi) すごい、凄い – amazing (sugoi) すばらしい、素晴らしい – wonderful (subarashii) わるい、悪い – bad, inferior (warui) たかい、高い – expensive, high (takai) ひくい、低い – low (hikui) やすい、安い – cheap (yasui) おおきい、大きい – big (ōkii) ちいさい、小さい – small (chiisai) ほそい、細い – thin (hosoi) ふとい、太い – thick (futoi) ふるい、古い – old (furui) あたらしい、新しい – new (atarashii) わかい、若い – young (wakai) かるい、軽い – light, easy (karui) おもい、重い – heavy (omoi) やさしい、易しい – easy, simple (yasashii) むずかしい、難しい – difficult (muzukashii) やわらかい、柔らかい – soft (yawarakai) かたい、硬い、堅い – hard (katai) あつい、熱い、暑い – hot (atsui) つめたい、冷たい – cold (tsumetai) さむい、寒い – cold (samui) おいしい、美味しい – delicious (oishii) うまい、美味い、旨い – delicious, appetizing (umai) まずい、不味い – tastes awful (mazui) あまい、甘い – sweet (amai) からい、辛い – hot [spicy] (karai) しょっぱい、塩っぱい – salty (shoppai) にがい、苦い – bitter (nigai) うつくしい、美しい – beautiful (utsukushii)

DuygularDüzenle

うれしい、嬉しい – happy (ureshii) たのしい、楽しい – fun (tanoshii) かなしい、悲しい – sad (kanashii) さびしい、寂しい、淋しい – lonely (sabishii) さみしい、寂しい、淋しい - sad, lonely (samishii) こわい、怖い、恐い – scary (kowai) いたい、痛い – painful (itai) かゆい、痒い – itchy (kayui) くさい、臭い – stinky (kusai) つらい、辛い – painful, heart-breaking (tsurai)

EylemlerDüzenle

する – to do (suru) やる – to do (yaru)

VaroluşDüzenle

いる – to exist [for animate objects] (iru) ある – to exist [for inanimate objects] (aru) なる – to become (naru) おこる、起こる、興る – to occur (okoru) あらわれる, 現れる – to appear (arawareru) いきる、生きる – to live (ikiru) うむ、生む、産む – to give birth (umu) しぬ、死ぬ – to die (shinu) こわれる, 壊れる – to breakin (kowareru) in intransitive sense Movement いく、行く – to go (iku) くる、来る – to come (kuru) かえる、帰る、返る – to return (kaeru) あるく、歩く – to walk (aruku) とぶ、飛ぶ – to jump, to fly (tobu) およぐ、泳ぐ – to swim (oyogu) Actions うごく、動く – to movein (ugoku) おどる、踊る – to dance (odoru) ねる、寝る – to sleep (neru) うたう、歌う – to sing (utau) かむ、噛む – to bite (kamu) たべる、食べる – to eat (taberu) のむ、飲む – to drink (nomu) さわる、触る – to touch (sawaru) なげる、投げる – to throw (nageru) もつ、持つ – to hold (motsu) うつ、打つ – to hit, to strike (utsu) なぐる、殴る – to hit, to strike (naguru) さす、指す – to point (sasu) さす、刺す – to stab (sasu) さす、差す – to raise or extend one's hands (sasu) ける、蹴る – to kick (keru) すわる、座る – to sit (suwaru) たつ、立つ – to stand (tatsu) はしる、走る – to run (hashiru) Changes of state あく, 空く – to become unoccupied (aku) こむ, 込む – to be crowded (komu) いる, 要る – to need (iru) かわく, 乾く – to become dry (kawaku) みだす, 乱す - to disturb, to disarrange (midasu) みだれる, 乱れる - to be disturbed, to become confused (midareru) つかえる, 仕える - to serve, to work for (tsukaeru) そなわる, 備わる - to be furnished with (sonawaru) すぐれる, 優れる - to excel, to surpass (sugureru) ひえる, 冷える - to grow cold, to get chilly, to cool down (hieru) さめる, 覚める - to wake, to become sober, to be disillusioned (sameru) さめる, 冷める - to cool down (sameru) むく, 向く - to face, to turn toward (muku) たおれる, 倒れる - to fall, to collapse (taoreru) かたまる, 固まる - to harden, to solidify, to become firm (katamaru) うまる, 埋まる - to be filled, to be surrounded, to overflow (umaru) うもれる, 埋もれる - to be buried, to be covered (umoreru) ます, 増す - to increase, to grow (masu) ふえる, 増える - to increase, to multiply (fueru) へる, 減る - to decrease (heru) はずれる, 外れる - to deviate (hazureru) ふとる, 太る - to grow fat (futoru) はじまる, 始まる - to begin (hajimaru) おわる, 終わる - to finish, to close (owaru) きめる, 決める - to decide (kimeru) Senses みる、見る – to see (miru) きく、聞く、聴く – to hear, to listen (kiku) さわる、触る – to touch, to feel (sawaru) かぐ、嗅ぐ – to smell (kagu) Speech いう、言う – to say (iu) はなす、話す – to speak (hanasu) かたる、語る – to tell (kataru) かく、書く – to write (kaku) よむ、読む – to read (yomu) Work つかう、使う – to use (tsukau) つくる、作る、造る、創る – to make (tsukuru) なおす、直す、治す – to fix, repair (naosu) すてる、捨てる – to discard, throw away (suteru) とる、取る、撮る、採る – to take (toru) おく、置く – to put (oku) Emotions かなしむ、悲しむ、哀しむ – to be sad (kanashimu) なく、泣く – to cry (naku) わらう、笑う – to laugh (warau) おこる、怒る – to be angry (okoru) ほめる、褒める – to encourage (homeru) しかる、叱る – to scold (shikaru) よろこぶ、喜ぶ – to celebrate, to be jubilant, to have joy, to have delight, to have rapture (yorokobu) よろこび、喜び – joy, delight, rapture (yorokobi) なぐさめる、慰める – to console, to consolate, to provide empathy (nagusameru) あきる、飽きる – to be disinterested, to be bored, to be tired of, to be weary (akiru) おどろく、驚く – to be astonished, to be surprised, to be scared (odoroku) Activities あう、会う – to meet, to interview (au) あける、開ける – to opentr, to unwraptr (akeru) あそぶ、遊ぶ – to play (asobu) あつまる、集まる – to gatherin (atsumaru) うる、売る – to sell (uru) える、得る – to obtain [some benefit or knowledge] (eru) おる、折る – to breaktr, to foldtr (oru) かう、買う – to buy (kau) きる、切る – to cut (kiru)† きる、着る – to wear [on the upper body] (kiru) はく、履く – to wear [on the lower body] (haku) かえる、変える – to changetr (kaeru) かえる、代える – to exchange, to substitute, to replace (kaeru) しめる、閉める – to closetr (shimeru) しめる、締める – to tie, to fasten (shimeru) しめる、占める – to comprise, to account for (shimeru) しる、知る – to know (shiru)† つかれる、疲れる – to get tired (tsukareru) でかける、出掛ける – to go out, to depart (dekakeru) はたらく、働く – to work [e.g., at a job] (hataraku) はなす、放す、離す – to let go of (hanasu) やすむ、休む – to rest, to take a break, to go to bed (yasumu) わかれる、分かれる – to split intoin, to be divided (wakareru) わかれる、別れる – to partin, to separatein, to break upin (wakareru) tr transitive sense in intransitive sense † conjugates as a u-verb

BelirteçlerDüzenle

もう – already (mō) まだ – still, yet (mada) ずっと – always (zutto) とても – very (totemo) こう – like this (kō) そう – like that (sō) ああ – in that other way (ā) どう – how (dō) しばしば – often (shibashiba)

Pre-noun adjectivalDüzenle

この – this (kono) その – that (sono) あの – that (ano) どの – which (dono)

InterjectionsDüzenle

はい – yes (hai) いいえ – no (iie)

ConjunctionsDüzenle

でも - but (demo) しかし – but, however (shikashi) そして – and then, Then… (soshite) それに – besides (soreni) なぜなら – that is because, being because (nazenara)

Terminations of verbsDüzenle

う、よう – volitional ending [う for u-verbs, よう for ru-verbs]: "Let's…" or "I will" (u, yō) せる、させる – causative ending [せる for u-verbs, させる for ru-verbs]: to make [someone do something], to allow (seru, saseru) れる、られる – passive verb ending [れる for u-verbs, られる for ru-verbs]: to be <verbed> [e.g., 食べられる, "to be eaten"] (reru, rareru) そうだ – indicates that it seems the verb occurs [e.g., "It seems he ate"] (sōda) た – informal past-tense (ta) たい – indicates desire to perform verb (tai) だろう – indicates that it seems the verb occurs; also used to ask whether the verb occurs (darō) ない, ん – informal negative (nai, n) [ん is a slurred version and sounds a little masculine] ぬ – archaic informal negative ["he hath", "thou didst", etc.] (nu) ます – formal non-past ending (masu)

ParticlesDüzenle

Case が – subject marker, but (ga) で – at, by (de) と – and, with (to) に – indirect object marker (ni) の – possession marker, of (no) へ – to (e) [Note: へ is normally read he, but when used as this particle its reading changes to e] まで – to (made) から – from (kara) より – than (yori) を – direct object marker (o) Conjunctive および、及び – and; as well as (oyobi) か – whether (ka) かも – might be, possible that (kamo) そして – and then (soshite) それとも – or (soretomo) だの – things like <list of things>, including, such things as (dano) つつ – ongoing occurrence (tsutsu) [similar to ながら but has different tone, and both actions have equal weight] て – te form of verb or adjective [see explanation] と – when, if, that (to) ながら – while, though, both (nagara) ならびに – as well as (narabini) なり – whether or not (nari) に – to <somewhere>, by <someone> (ni) の – possession (no) ので – so (node) また、又 – also, again (mata) または、又は – or alternatively (matawa) も – also, too (mo) や – and (ya) Final ね – emphasis and question marker, equivalent to "right?" (ne) か – question marker (ka) な – the copula particle used after quasi-adjectives (na) かしら – I wonder (kashira) さ – -ness (sa) っけ – particle indicating that the speaker is trying to recall some information ["What class is next -kke?"] (-kke) Adverbial こそ – emphasis (koso) さえ – even (sae) しか – only (shika) すら – even (sura) くらい、ぐらい – approximately, about (kurai) だけ – only, as much as (dake) だって – however (datte) ったら – casual topic marker (ttara) [colloquial form of to ittara (if you refer to ~; as for ~) って – said that (tte) でも – also, or (demo) どころ – (particle used to indicate that what precedes it is an extreme example and strongly negates it) (dokoro) など – for example (nado) なら – if [for verbs]; subject marker [for nouns] (nara) なんか – casual undervalue, dislike, lack (nanka) なんて – casual undervalue, dislike, lack (nante) は – topic marker (wa) [although ha is the hiragana used, wa is the pronunciation) ばかり、ばっかり – just, full of, only (bakari) まで – until (made) も – too, also (mo)